Carbon Dioxide Emission from Traffic and Its Impact on Micro-climate Change in Gaza City, Palestine

Traffic emissions are a major source of air pollution in most urban areas affecting public health and the climate. The aim of this study is to determine the roadside concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions arising from motor vehicles at several sites in Gaza. This is with an effort to investigate the correlations between CO2 trends and micro-climate change. The concentration of CO2, along with the humidity and temperature, was monitored at selected intersections during morning peak (7:00–8:30 a.m.), off peak traffic hours (10:30 a.m.–1:30 p.m.), and afternoon peak (3:00–4:30 p.m.). The results show that CO2 concentrations at the study locations fluctuated between 291 and 608 ppm. It was observed that CO2 concentrations were higher than the agreeable international level of 350 ppm in most of the sampled locations. Pearson’s correlation analysis shows good correlation (average r > 0.70) between CO2 concentrations and the traffic volume, and this signifies that CO2 is originated from vehicular emissions. Moreover, trends of the average ambient air temperature, which has been increasing for more than a decade, indicates that Gaza is becoming more exposed to extreme weather conditions as a result of the climate change. The finding suggests the necessity of taking actions to reduce the CO2 ambient concentration from traffic emissions in Gaza in order to minimize climatic change effect in a local context.

Assessing Climate Change Vulnerabilities in Northern Boreal Forests

Climate change is expected to affect Canada’s boreal forests significantly. However, the nature and magnitudes of impacts are expected to vary across the country. One proactive approach to adapting to these variable changes is to identify regional vulnerabilities. This research aims to identify vulnerabilities for forests in Western Newfoundland under three scenarios of climate change, by following the core elements of the IPCC vulnerability framework, through expert opinion. Opinions were collected through a questionnaire survey and group discussions where adaptive capacity was evaluated based on the perceived effectiveness of adaptation options and the capacity to implement them. An analysis of the expert opinion data showed that infrastructural damage, alteration of plant and animal distribution, and invasive species were seen as the most significant areas of vulnerability for the forests of Western Newfoundland. This research is the first step toward a more comprehensive vulnerability assessment.

The Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture in Developing Countries

Farmer livelihoods and agricultural growth in many Sub-Saharan African countries are at risk due to climate change as it impacts on agricultural production and income. Furthermore, smallholder farmers are affected disproportionately as their sustenance is totally dependent on agriculture. This study explores smallholder farmers’ understanding and perception of climate change as well as the coping strategies they are adopting. Information was gathered through structured questionnaires and household surveys in Ibarapa/Ibadan and Ogbomoso Agricultural Zones of Oyo State Nigeria. Results revealed that smallholder farmers perceive climate change as increased temperature, delayed onset of rain, and increased drought. The effects of climate change include longer periods of heat stress on crops, reduced crop yield, increased health hazards, discomfort at work, increased outbreaks of disease, and reduced soil fertility. Farmer responses linked to their perception of climate change include mixed cropping, bush fallowing, cover cropping, crop rotation, use of fertilizers, mulching, and the use of improved crop varieties. Additional responses in the study area included having other sources of income generation such as trading, transportation businesses, and crafts. Respondents are making efforts to adapt to climate change in various ways; however, it is recommended that more insight and awareness campaigns are carried out on effects of climate change, and coping strategies should be encouraged to enhance adaptive capacity and productivity, thus improving the livelihoods of smallholders.